Galata Mevlevi House -
Galata Mevlevi Monaestry -
Galata Mevlevihanesi Museum -
Galata Mawlavi House Museum -
Galata Mawlawi Lodge
Experience the spiritual ceremony of The Mawlawi Sama ( Whirling Dervish Ceremony / Dervishes Show ) first hand
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Where to See the Whirling Dervishes in Istanbul?
The Rumi Mevlevi also perform in six different locations.
Whirling Dervishes ceremonies (semas) can be witnessed everyday.
Galata Mawlavi House (Lodge-Monaestry) HISTORY
It is the first Mawlavi House in İstanbul (1491) where was built by Divane (Semai) Mehmed (Chalabi) Dede, Sheikh of Afyon Mawlawi House, on a land at Galata ridge whose Iskender Pasha owned during the reign of Bayezid II (birth 1481 AH -1512 CE)The building was swayed by the big earthquake in İstanbul (1509) otherwise known as "little doomsday"; repaired and renovated and turned out to be a complex of building after new sections added. The first known reparation was the Construction Work in the Mawlawi House by the Fiduciary of the Kitchen Ismail Ağa. The oldest property that has survived today is Hasan Agha Fountain which is dated to 1649.The Mawlawi house was destroyed in the big fire at Tophane (1765) and repaired in the same year by Yenişehirli Osman Efendi who was designated as the buildings' fiduciary by Sultan Mustafa III. The Mawlawi house was renovated by reparations which were financed by Sultan Selim III (birth, 1789 AH -1807 CE) , after Sheikh Galib's chair period began in 1791.In the 19 century, the Mawlawi House turned out to be current configuration by the constructions during the reign of Mahmud II (birth 1808 AH -1839 CE) in 1819 and 1835; in the reign of Sultan Abdulmecid (birth 1839 AH -1861 CE) 1851-1852 and in the years of 1959-1960.
The function as Mawlavi House was ceased due to The law no 677 and dd. 13 December 1925; on closure of dervish lodges, hospices and shrines and on abolition and banning to the shrine offices and particular titles and the buildings were began to use as a school by Arbitrament from Istanbul Principal Council on Galata Mawlawi House's converting to a school. After being used as the 35th Elementary school, although it was transferred of the title to the Educational Department for "being a museum" by Arbitrament from the Cabinet on 2 October 1946; opening was only became possible after receiving visitors under the title of "Divan Literature Museum" on 27 December 1975.
Between 2005-2009, The Sema House was restorated under the control of Provincial Department for Foundations.
Halet Said Efendi (Kudretullah Dede) Tomb and Sheikh Ghalib (Ismail Ankaravi) Tombs were restorated and The Museum started to receive visitors by Ministry of Culture and Tourism and with the contributions of İstanbul 2010 European Cultural Capital Agency.
Architectural spaces with religious content were emerged as a matter of course that meet the orders' institutional needs to observe their rituals and shaped distinctively developing in accordance with demands. These architectural spaces are entitled the same names and have many commonalities although they vary according to each order.Dervish Lodges: Literal meaning of "takkah" in Persian is derived from "takyah" which means, "leaning, relying, reliance, gathering location for dhikr and rosary."Dervish Lodges are the structures as a matter of their institution where orders' affiliated people gather and observe their own rites, worships and services according to their own ustoms, traditions and principles. Hospices: A Zaouiah (hospice) is the smallest size dervish lodge building.Hospices would be able to transform to lodges undergoing a transition of expanding as quality and quantity, being supported by foundations and becoming important congregation centers during a certain evolutionary process in time. Khanqah:A building which is considered superior relative to the other branches among buildings peculiar to orders and where a shrine of one of the seniors or the founder of the order (Pir) is called a "Khanqah". It derives from Persian "Khangah" or "Khanegah" and used as referring a big lodge called "pir's chair (pir makamı) as well.Dargah and Asitaneh: They are two terms which were used for naming after specifying differences of status and importance among structures peculiar to orders. Persian "Dargah" means gate and "Asitaneh" means treshold which were used as architectural terms metaphorically although they do not refer to architectural concepts. Asitaneh of these terms mean the biggest dargah that is superior among other buildings of that particular order. And dargah is used to refer to a lodge in general terminology. Word dargah is used for no matter what the status and importance grading is and does not carry any quality referring any kind of value judgement.
SUFI BELIEF AND THE TURKISH ADOPTION OF ISLAM
Ruling over an area stretching up to Lake Baikal in Siberia, the sixth-century Göktürks were in contact with the Chinese on one border and the Sassanids and Byzantine Empires on the other. Weakened by partition into east and west in 581CE, they faced the advancing armies of the Arab Umayyad Caliphate (661-750), which had made inroads all the way into the interior of Central Asia, but were unable to halt the Arab march and were subsequently incorporated into the Islamic sphere of influence in Transoxiana.The mass conversion of the Turks to Islam occurred during the Abbasid (750-1258) and Sassanid (224-651) eras. The mass acceptance of Islam by approximately 200,000 Karluk, Oghuz and western Turkish tents in the tenth century is usually seen as the date of the Turkish transition to Islam.The Turkistan province of Khorasan, which was rich in Iranian traditions,became an important Sufi centre after the rise of Islam. In the third century of the hijrah (Islamic calendar), many mutasavvıf (Sufis) emerged from cities such as Herat, Nishapur and Merv, with a number of sheikhs emerging from cities in Turkistan which later became part of the empire, such as Bukhara and Fergana, in the fourth century AH. Indeed, the Turks of Fergana were known to give their sheikhs the title of 'bab' or 'baba', in memory of Sheikh Aslan Baba, one of the companions of the Prophet. The spread of Sufism and the official recognition of the dargah and lodges by the state authorities, along with the esteem in which statesman, and indeed the sultan himself, accorded the Sufis, led to the Sufis achieving an exalted status within the kingdoms and empires. The Karakhanids and Seljuks were bound by religious decrees and viewed the scholars and sheikhs with great respect. Fuat Köprülü writes, 'The strength of Turkish devotion to Islamic beliefs and their passionate adoption of the Hanefi creed was such that, due to the power of the collective, communal consciousness of the Turkish nation, on the one hand they tore down the exclusivity and restrictiveness inherent within Islam while also appreciating and accepting the fact that the essence of Islam and its rules and codes were to be found within the currents of Sufi thought. The hallowed status formerly conferred on the bards and poets was now given to those who recited the sacred hymns and texts and to those dervishes who, with the grace of Allah, devoted themselves to the wellbeing of the community and showed the peoples the path to righteousness and paradise, conferring upon them the titles of 'ata' or 'baba'.'The Islamic creed encountering established legal systems in the newly-conquered lands felt the need to adjoin the principles of the sharia to the existing laws. The tarikat (Arabic: tariqah: 'path, way, method'), the institutionalised form of the Sufism which emerged as a result of the adoption by the local culture of the principles of the sharia, did not focus on the 'outer' face of religious principles and its reflection and manifestation in the law but on its 'inner' aspect, its manifestation within the individual's inner, subjective dimension. 'Sufi' was the name given to one who had set off on this path, or road, whilst the journey itself was known as the seyri sülük. The Sufi embraced the batın ('inner') meaning of worship and method, as opposed to the zahir ('outer') manifestation.
THE MEVLEVI LODGE: THE ARCHITECTURAL COUNTERPART TO THE MEVLEVIYE
Despite a number of structural similarities between the Mevlevi lodges and other tarikat edifices, there were, due to differences in purpose and function, also notable distinctions. Activities such as the sema ceremony and the one thousand and one days of austerity and asceticism the Sufis practiced as part of their ethical and behavioural training, alongside the need for certain features, such as the Dedegân odaları (the elders' chambers), the semahane hall in which the sema was performed), the Matbah-ı Şerif (the kitchens) and Meydan-ı Şerif (the kitchens) and Meydan-ı Şerif (courtyard), meant a specific type of structure was required. However, when these architectural elements took place within the context of the emergence and development of the Mevleviye remains unknown, as a precise date or era for the emergence of the final form, or definitive version, of the sema and the one thousand and one days of austerity training - the essence of the Mevlevi creed - has yet to be ascertained.The dargah was entered via the cümle kapısı, the main entrance. The sheikh's private quarters were in a separate location, further away from the main complex of buildings and with a separate entrance. The selamlik, the rooms in which the sheikh greeted and welcomed guests, would undoubtedly include a coffee preparation area and sleeping quarters. The Meydan-ı Şerif, usually located in close priximity to the sleeping quarters, was a large area in which the members of the order would assemble after the morning prayers to discuss the day's issues. The other structure adjacent to the sleeping quarters was the stoves, the Matbah-ı Şerif, where food was prepared and also where the novices and new recruits could go to relax.The semahane was located in a separate building and was generally under the same roof as the burial crypt, although not every functioning tekke (lodge) would necessarily include such an edifice.
18 DUTIES IN THE KITCHEN (MATBAH)
The spirit of a Mawlawi dargah is Kitchen (Matbah). There is 18 kind of service at the Kitchen.The number 18 was believed to be sacred and auspicious by Mavlawls.There is Senior cook (executive chef) managing the dargah's expenses.
18 duties in the Kitchen (Matbah);
1) Senior Fireman : He is regarded as associate of the senior cook and also he is responsible for aspirants' regulation, manners and training. He has a separate chair like senior cook does. That is he has a title.
2) Senior Khalifa : He teaches newcomers about Kitchen's rules and regulations.
3) Yard Staff : For Konya locations, he informs seniors who dwelling at the cells about instructions from the orders' center; for other locations, he informs them about instructions from the senior cook.
4) Senior of Laundry : He is responsible for cleaning of aspirants' cloths.
5) Sprinkler : He is responsible from cleaning of toilets, fountains and faucets.
6) Waiter : He would prepare beverage for an aspirant before he goes to cell and serve beverage to visitor seniors in the kitchen.
7) Dishwasher : He is responsible from cleaning of the utensils.
8) Cupboarder : He would take care of the pots and pans and would have them tin coated if require.
9) Shopper : He would go for shopping early mornings.
10) Table Staff : He would spread and clear the tables and be responsible from sweeping up floors.
11) Inner Yard Staff : He would cook coffee together with the aspirant in the kitchen and would serve coffee to seniors during their visit to kitchen fridays.
12) Inner Candle Staff : He would take care of the candles in the kitchen.
13) Brayer : He would bray coffee grains for the kitchen and seniors.
14) Bedding Staff : He would make beds and change the sheets.
15) Outer Candle Staff : He would take care of the candles and lamps on the building wall.
16) Broom Staff : He would sweep up the gardens and the yard and take care of the surroundings.
17) Candle Lighter : He would check the candles' lighting status and help the graveyard staff.
18) Errand Boy : He would take care of the errands. This was the beginners' job in the dargah.
FAMILY SHEIKHDOM LINES IN THE ISTANBUL'S MAWLAWI CIRCLES
In the early 17th century, the former the senior chair successor to the Galata Mawlawi House Furuncuzade Sırrı Abdi Dede left the House and founded the Kasımpaşa Mawlawi House after being deposed by Bostan Çelebi (death: 1630 CE). This lodge was run by his descendants, thus initiating the first period of the "family sheikhdoms" in Istanbul. This tradition, beginning with the Kasımpaşa Mawlawi Lodge, was upheld by the family of Gawsi Ahmed Dede at the Galata Mawlawi House, the family of Eyyubi Mehmed Dede at Beşiktaş Mawlawi House, the descendants of Abdullah Necip Dede at Üsküdar Mawlawi House and, arguably most influential of them all, the Ebubeki Dede family at the Yenikapı Mawlawi House. These sheikh families established their own cultural traditions in an era beginning in the seventeenth century and continuing up to the beginning of the twentieth centuries.
The sheikh families' gradual increase in numbers since the seventeenth century and the adoption of a modernist political outlook which gained the approval of the Ottoman Palace resulted in the survival of the offices of the Çelebi lodge but as a Ratification Office. Culturally, however, this gave helped give rise to a sophisticated Mawlawi aesthetics intimately bound up with daily Istanbul life. The parts played by such noted personalities as Sheikh Ghalib and Ismail Dede Efendi in the establishment of this cultural foundation were of notable significance.
1- Sultan-ı Dîvanî Semai Mehmed Dede: Sheikh at the Afyon Mawlawi house, he founded the Galata Mawlawi house in 1491. He is an "Inas Chalabi", that is, a descendant of Rumi's maternal line. (death: 1529)
2- Furunizade Ali Sefai Dede: A chronological account is not viable due to inconsistencies in sources. (death: 1533).
3- Mesnevihan Mahmud Dede: The Mawlawi house fell into abandon and disrepair after his death in 1548 and was then briefly used as a madrasah and as the lodge for the Halweti order. (death: 1548)
4- Sırrı Abdi Dede (1608-1610): Upon his appointment to the sheikhdom in1608, he once again committed the lodge to the Mawlawism. He founded the Kasımpaşa Mawlawi House after being dismissed by Bostan Chalabi, the Sheikh of Mawlana Hospice, in 1610. (death:1631)
5- İsmail (Ankaravi) Rusuhi Dede (1610-1631): Known as the 'Commentator of the Masnavi', he is buried in the Sheikh Ghalib Tomb, which is more popularly referred to with his name. (death: 1631)
6- Hüseyin Adem Dede (1631-1652): Parts of the docks and kitchen were repaired in the Mawlawi House by Ismail Efendi during his sheikhdom. (death: 1652)
7- Arzi Mehmed Dede (1652-1664): Originally from Gaziantep, his grave is located to the left of the entrance to the Semahane ('Sema House'). (death: 1664)
8- Derviş Çelebi Efendi (1664): A descendant of Rumi, he died accompanying Mehmed IV on the Kamianets campaign in 1672.
9- Pendûri Naci Ahmed Dede (1664-1668): He was appointed senior sheikh at Yenikapı Mawlawi House after his residency at Galata Mawlawi House (death: 1711)
10- Gavsi Ahmed Dede (1668-1697): He started the era of dynastic family sheikhdoms at the Mawlawi Houses, being succeeded by his son-in-low and then by his grandson. His grave is located to the left of the entrance to the Semahane. (death: 1697)
11- Nayi Osman Dede (1697-1729): Both son-in-low and disciple of Gavsi Ahmed Dede, he is considered a master of the reed flute and was awarded the honorific titles of kutb and nayi. He composed the "Mirajiah, an important work in classical Turkish music. (death: 1729)
12- Sırrı Abdülbaki Dede (1729-1751): The son of Nayi Osman Dede.
13- Mehmed Şemseddin Dede (1751-1760): His grave is located to the right at the entrance to the Semahane. (death: 1761)
14- İsa Dede (1760-1771): Destroyed in the Tophane Fire of 1765, the Mawlawi House was rebuilt during his Sheikhdom in 1766.His grave is in the Sheikh Ghalib Tomb. (death: 1771)
15- Selim Dede (1771-1777): He was the brother-in-law of Isa Dede. His grave is in the Sheikh Ghalib Tomb. (death: 1777)
16- Mehmed Sadık Dede (1777-1778): Formerly sheikh of the Kasımpaşa Mawlawi Lodge, he was appointed sheikh of the Galata Mawlawi Lodge. (death: 1778)
17- Çelebi Abdülkadir Dede (1778- 1781):
18- Aşçıbaşı Hüseyin Dede (1781-1782): Appointed Chief Cook at the Mawlana Dergah. (death: 1782)
19- Bakkalzade Konyalı Ali Dede (1782-1786); Appointed to the chair twice.
20- Numan Halil Dede (1786-1793): He was dismissed from the sheikhdom of Galata Mawlawi House after founding the Üsküdar Mawlawi Lodge from his own home at Üsküdar without approval from the Konya Dergah when he was 104 years old. (death: 1798)
21- Bakkalzade Konyalı Ali Dede (1793-1790): Appointed to the sheikh's chair twice.
22- Abdullah Dede (1790): Died on the way to Istanbul after he was selected as the senior chair at the Galata Mawlawi Lodge.
23- Galip (Mehmed Esad) Dede (1791-1799): A new era started on 11 June 1791 when Hajji Mehmed Emin Chalabi, the sheikh of the Konya Dergah, appointed Sheikh Ghalib as the chair to the Galata Mawlawi House. A substantial renovation and reparation project for the derelict dergah was carried out on the sovereign's orders following a eulogy written by Sheikh Ghalib for Sultan Selim III, which is written in full on the rear of the entrance portal. Sheikh Ghalib was also believed to have been the ardent lover of Beyhan Sultan, the sister of Sultan Selim III. (death 1799)
24- Mehmed Ruhi Dede (1799-1800): The sheikh family line at the Üsküdar Mawlawi House was upheld by his son, Abdullah Necib Dede. His grave is in the Sheikh Ghalib Tomb. (death: 1810)
25- Mahmud Dede (1800-1817): Appointed sheikh at the Beşiktaş Mawlawi House in 1817. (death: 1819)
26- Kudretullah Dede (1817-1872): A member of the family of Ebubekir Dede, sheikh of Yenikapı Mawlawi house. During his long residency, reparations were carried out in 1819, under Sultan Mahmud II, and in 1835, during the reign of Sultan Abdulmecid. His grave is in the tomb on the left hand side of the entrance, otherwise known as the Halet Efendi Tomb. He was succeeded by his son Ataullah Dede.
27- Ataullah Dede (1871-1908): His grave is in the Halet Efendi Tomb, besides that of his father. (death: 1910)
28-Veled Çelebi (1908-1910): He acted as proxy senior chair at the Galata Mawlana House in 1908 in place of Mehmed Atâullah Dede, who was unable to run the lodge efficiently due to his advancing years. He was selected chair of Çelebi Mawlana Hospice on 28 June 1910.
29- Ahmed Celaleddin Dede (1910-1925): Last senior chair before the closure of the lodges in 1925. (death: 1946)
MAWLAWISM AND LITERATURE
Chairs (sheikhs) and other senior staff at Mawlawi Houses were dervishes that were accomplished poets or musicians or who were skilled in other artistic fields at the same time. Mawlawi Houses, with the Galata Mawlawi House in particular, nurtured and groomed leading figures in the field of Turkish literature, including notables such as Sheikh Ghalib (Mehmed Esad), the author of 'Beauty of Love' (Hüsn-ü Aşk), Ismail of Ankara (Rusuhi Dede), Esrar Dede, Fasih Dede and Leyla Hanım, the first female diwan poet.
Real name Ahmed, Fasih Dede occupies an important place among the Mawlawi poets of the 17th century. Born of an aristocratic family including prominent statesmen, scientists, poets and mystics, he converted to Islam after Mehmed II's conquest of Albania. He joined the Galata Mevlevi Lodge when it was run by Gavsi Ahmed Dede's (1668-1697) and, after completing the 1001 days' training period and getting the title of dede ('senior', 'master'), lived there for twenty-five years. He is the author of seven works, amongst them a collection of poems (divans) in Turkish and Persian. He was buried at the lodge's Hamushan ('place of silence'; burial plot) when he died in 1700. Buried in the same location as Esrar Dede, Fasih Dede's tomb was for long a place of pilgrimage and shelter for wanderers and the needy.
SHEIKH GALİB (MEHMED ESAD) DEDE (1757-1799)
He was initiated into the Mevleviye at Konya and completed his training in the Yenikapı Mevlevi House. He was appointed senior chair at the Galata Mevlevi House in and remained in the post until 1799, when he died aged 42. In 1782, he wrote 'The Beauty of Love' (Hüsn-ü Aşk), considered one of the most important works of divan literature. His friendship with Sultan Selim III led to the Galata Mevlevi House being repaired and renovated between 1791 and 92. He was also known for his affection for Beyhan Sultan, sister to Sultan Selim III.
ZİYA PASHA (1825 - May 17th, 1880)
There exists a whole class of masters of eloquence
Their purpose was not the poem
Mawlana wrote the Mathnavi
And Gulsheni wrote the Manevi*
Their purpose was clear
To tell the truth through poetry
To calling those people of wisdom poets
Is an insult to perfection.
* Ibrahim Gulsheni authored the Manevi in Persian as a reply to Rumi's Mathnawi.
MAWLAWISM AND MUSIC
When one thinks of music in the Mawlawi tradition, the Mawlawi mass, the largest musical form in Turkish music, immediately springs to mind. A Mawlawi mass was performed during sema ceremonies by the Mawlawi order, with the lyrics being excerpts from Rumi's poems, Persian odes from Rumi's Divan al Kabir or his Masnavi or verses/lyrcis by the other sufi poets. The lyrics composed by Sultan Veled were the most popular after those composed by Rumi.The mass consists of four parts corresponding to the sema's four stages, known as a selam. Each selam consists of a few composed lines and their recital and performance with vocals and/or instruments.A mass begins with an overture in the mode (maqam) of devrikebir. In the first selam, Devrirevan, Devrihindi, Düyek, Aghirdüyek modes were oft employed, whilst the Aghırevfer mode was used in the second selam, with the Devrikebir mode usually used in the third. At the end of the third selam, an Aksak semai would be played and a semai was performed, followed by a Yörük semai (an allegro part) to end the third selam. An adagio would commence the fourth selam, with the mass ending with the final overture and Yörük semai.The masses are performed by orchestras known as mutrib, consisting of neyzen (reed flautists), kudümzen (drummers), naathan (reciters) and ayinhan (singers). The most prominent of the musical instruments used in Mawlawi music is undoubtedly the reed flute. The principal rhythm instrument is the kudüm (drum), as rhythm is of great importance in this style of music. A rebab is an accompanying instrument to the reed flute and drum. The tambour, fiddle, oud and qanun are used in addition to the halile and bender, used as rhythm instruments in accompaniment with the drums.
Rauf Yekta Bey (1871-1935):
A student of Ataullah Dede (1845-1911), he was the last chief reed flutist of the Galata Mawlawi House. He was born in Aksaray, Istanbul, in 1871 and worked for the government for thirty-eight years as a vice-secretary to the Prime Ministers' Office before his retirement in 1922.Rauf Yekta Bey was trained by Hüseyin Fahrettin Dede (1845-1911), Sheikh of the Bahariye Mawlawi House, as well as Ataullah Efendi (1854-1911), the Sheikh of the Galata Mawlawi House, and Celal Efendi, Sheikh of the Yenikapı Mawlawi House, three of the most renowned Mawlawi sheikhs of modern times. These sheikhs discovered many of the forgotten secrets of Eastern Music in ancient manuscripts and led Rauf Yekta Bey towards his founding of a field of modern
Turkish musicology. Rauf Yekta Bey is considered the first Turkish musicologist due to his formation of a musicology using modern measurements and notations for Turkish music, which had become stifled within the traditional master-apprentice relationship. His successors were Sadeddin Arel and Dr. Suphi Ezgi, with Kemal Batanay, Sadeddin Heper, Mesut Cemil, and Vecdi Seyhun three of his well-known students.His legacy upon his death on the 8th of January 1935 included a ground-breaking essay on Turkish Music written for the Livagnac Encyclopedia of Music which was published in Paris in 1922 and around fifty original compositions, including a Mawlawi mass composed in the Yegah style. The four-hundred year old Mawlawi Music being played today has survived thanks to his notations and records. His grave is located in the Nakkaşbaba Cemetery, Beylerbeyi.
THE JANISSARY BAND
The Orhun Tablets of the eighth century spoke of the plumed regiments, the precursor to the Janissary Bands, whilst the Divan-ı Lugat-it Türk (the first Turkish Dictionary) written in the eleventh century by Mahmud al Kashgari spoke of percussion instruments being struck in the presence of and in honour of the hakan (lord, or sovereign). The symbols of Turkish sovereignty - the davul, flag and plume - were brought to Anatolia from distant Turkistan and maintained and developed by the various Turkish dynasties, from the Karakhanids to the Seljuks, and the Ilhanlilar to the Mamluks and Ottomans.
The origin of mehter (Janissary Corps Band) music was the battlefield. The mehter, or military march, was performed during sieges, land battles and naval combat to rouse the troops and intimidate the enemy. The mehter musicians would march at the head of the column and would direct the battle.Mehter music was a source of inspiration to a number of notable European composers and was the origin of the ala turka musical style which developed in the eighteenth century. Composers such as Mozart and Haydn composed various works influenced by Turkish military music, such as the third section of Mozart's piano sonata no. 11 (K. 331), 'The Turkish March', or 'Turkish Rondo'. Beethoven's Op. 113, No. 4, the 'Turkish March', inspired by military themes, is still used by the Republic of Turkey on various official occasions and as a promotion piece.
INSTRUMENTS IN TURKISH MUSIC
The Turks have been using musical instruments since the Hun era. In the post-Islamic period, the developments of these instruments were aided by the presence of the Sufi lodges, the Janissary bands and the musical training institutes within the palace.
The structures and instruments of Ottoman music evolved over time. The komuz, the precursor to all stringed and fretted instruments used in Ottoman classical and folk music, endured until the end of the nineteenth century, with the ud becoming a requested instrument between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. The komuz gave way to the tanbur in the seventeenth century as the more popular instrument. The historical Turkish harp, the çeng, fell into disuse in the nineteenth century, with the santur (the hammered dulcimer) following suit in the twentieth century. The twentieth century saw the sinekemanı, the name given to a viola d'amore style violin originating in the west, followed by the viola, cello and double bass, and then the fiddle and lute (used as accompanying instruments in palace gatherings) become staples of the classical music repertoire. The old style castanets, known as the çalpara, were no longer in use, in contrast to the spoons and bells which continued to be a part of popular and folk music. During the reign of Sultan Murad II, the writer Şükrullah noted nine instruments in his compilation of instruments used in Ottoman music, whilst the writer Kâtib Çelebi published a list of nineteen instruments.
Seventy-six instruments were identified, with a description for most provided, by the writer and musician Evliya Çelebi.
In general, organology, the study of musical instruments, classifies instruments via three categories, according to their shape and structure:
a) percussion: instruments used to create rhythm, they can be divided according to their structure or sound, as in wooden, leather or timbrel
b) wind instruments: used for melody, these can be classified as instruments in which the air used to create sound is not contained within ('free aerophones') and those which contain the vibrating air.
c) stringed instruments: these melody-creating instruments are classified into plucked and stringed instruments.
Ottoman instruments can also be divided into five categories, according to their function place of use:
a) military musical instruments - the kettledrum, the davul, the naqareh, the tabla, daf, zurna, pipes, kerrenay, Mehter horn, clarinet, Mehter cymbal and çevgen (sticks)
b) instruments used in religious music - the ney (reed flute), kudüm (a small drum), rebab, bender, nevbe and zil (bells/cymbals)
c) folk music instruments - the davul, naqareh, zurna, mey (oboe), kaval, tulum, iklığ, kaval, sipse, çifte, whistle, spoons, glasses, the Black Sea fiddle, kemane, kabak kemane, komuz, lute, kanun, cura and tanbur
d) instruments used in classical music - fiddle, stringed tanbur, violin, kudüm, daire, girift, miskal, pişe, mû, kara kamış, mizmar, çeng (harp), tanbur, oud, kanun and santur
e) instruments used in festive music - the darbuka, finger cymbals, the hokkabaz pipes and the lute